A Complete Guide to Flight Phases
Pilots · 12 min read
Flying can seem overwhelming at times but understanding each of these phases can help make it easier for aviation professionals or anyone curious about flying planes.
To fly the aircraft, all pilots should master how to precisely calculate the density altitude. Low-density air basically does not allow aircraft to function accurately, leaving the occupants of an aircraft and other planes in the region in danger.
A high-density altitude, in particular, can affect aerodynamic performance during takeoff or descent. It can also alter the required landing length. Knowing the density altitude can help pilots have a clear perspective on the aircraft’s performance potential during each phase of the flight.
It’s hard to talk about the weather without mentioning the threats of density altitude to planes. If a pilot is not watchful, this invisible phenomenon, which can only be perceived by the aircraft’s movement, might creep up on them and impair lift, thrust, and engine efficiency.
Pressure altitude compensated for temperature is called density altitude. In simple words, it has a significant impact on an airplane’s performance, and it is effectively the comparable elevation of where the airplane assumes it is performing.
The pressure altitude compensated for nonstandard temperature fluctuations is technically known as density altitude. Due to dispersion in lift functionality, if the density height at sea level is 5,000 feet, the airplane will take off as if it is actually flying at 5,000 feet. This is because air density drops as altitude increases.
Aerodynamic performance is hampered by higher air density altitudes. It reduces an airplane’s engine’s horsepower generation. Airplanes need to extend their takeoff length while flying at high air density altitudes. It slows the velocity of the ascent of an aircraft. Rising air density elevation necessitates a longer touchdown roll length.
It lowers lifting capabilities and affects propeller performance, resulting in overall lower thrust. The aircraft’s engine horsepower output is also reduced by high-density altitude. Higher density at altitude can pose serious complications throughout liftoff and approach.
To prevent stalling, an aircraft must attain a higher true airspeed. That requires a lengthier takeoff roll and a higher airspeed that must be retained while flying. The proportion of usable power that an aircraft’s powerplant can generate reduces as density altitude rises. For a conventional light non-turbocharged single-engine aircraft, this can result in a 25% longer takeoff roll for every 1,000 feet of true altitude.
Pilots are trained to calculate optimal takeoff roll by employing performance charts available in the Pilots’ Operating Handbook for the plane that shows what behavior they may expect based on power selections and weather patterns.
The impact of rising ambient temperatures on takeoff capability is surprising. On a 25° F day, a Model 25 Learjet requires just 3937 feet of runway length for a maximum-certified-weight takeoff. But at 6000 ft elevation and 50° F, the same aircraft carrying an equal payload will require around 8,000 feet of runway length.
Pilots must calculate the density altitude in order to operate an aircraft during its journey. It has a significant impact on an aircraft’s ability to fly.
High-Density Altitude = Decreased Performance
The effect of high air density altitude on aerodynamic efficiency is adverse. It reduces an airplane’s engine’s horsepower. Aircraft must extend their takeoff length due to the high air density altitude. It slows the velocity of the ascent of an aircraft. High air density at altitude necessitates a longer landing roll distance.
A heavy load, hot temperatures, excessive airport altitude, and high relative humidity are the most hazardous density altitude circumstances. A really terrible combined effect is high, hot, humid, and heavy, although an airplane has to encounter any of these to have its efficiency reduced by density altitude.
Atmospheric conditions such as elevated heat, considerable airport altitude, and high relative humidity along with a heavy payload are perhaps the most hazardous density altitude circumstances. High, hot, humid, and heavy is a lethal combination, but an airplane’s efficiency is reduced by density altitude even if just one of these conditions exists.
Lower air density and hence decreased airplane efficiency are associated with high-density altitude. A rise in density altitude is caused by a rise in heat, a decrease in air pressure, and, to a limited extent, a rise in moisture. There are three major elements that influence high-density altitude.
The air density decreases as height increases. Extreme temperatures can have such an influence on density altitude at airports in the highlands. Flights during the morning and afternoon might become exceedingly dangerous in such settings. Although at lower altitudes, airplane performance might deteriorate, necessitating the reduction of the weight limit for operational safety.
The air becomes less thick as it gets heated. Whenever the heat in a given area climbs above the normal temperature, the air density within this region decreases, and the density altitude rises. When efficiency is a concern, it is best to schedule flights during the cooler periods of the day, such as early morning, because projected temperature changes are unlikely to exceed the typical. Either departure or arrival schedules are occasionally preferable in the early morning and nighttime.
Since the influence of humidity is associated with engine power instead of aerodynamic performance, it is not typically regarded as a key element in density altitude estimations. The air may hold a high water vapor concentration at high-temperature conditions.
At 96 degrees Fahrenheit, the water vapor concentration of the atmosphere can be eight times that of 42 degrees Fahrenheit. High moisture content and low-density altitude can not necessarily go together. If there is heavy moisture, the pilot should add 10% to the calculated takeoff length and expect a slower ascent rate.
Configure the window in the altimeter to 29.92 to ascertain the pressure altitude. It displays the pressure altitude at any level.
A density altitude estimator to rapidly obtain critical data for flight and navigation may both be found on an E6B flight computer. The E6B onboard computer can assist pilots in the calculation of the current density altitude by providing particular parameters such as outdoor air temperature and pressure altitude.
The following is the distinction between density and pressure altitude: whenever the instrument’s Kollsman window is adjusted to 29.92 in Hg, the height read off the surface of the altimeter is called pressure altitude (or 1013 hPa in metric). Pressure altitude is compensated for nonstandard temperature fluctuations with density altitude. At sea level, the normal temperature is 15 degrees Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit.
Set the altimeter range to 29.92 in order to ascertain the pressure altitude. The pressure altitude will be the value it displays. If you don’t have access to an altimeter, use this equation to calculate pressure altitude: standard pressure altitude is calculated by (standard pressure minus current pressure adjustment) multiplied by 1,000 plus airport altitude.
Weather reports can be used to calculate the value of air pressure. Weather conditions must be closely monitored to guarantee that an airplane gets to its destination safely. Wind, temperature, air pressure, and visibility all affect airplane performance, as well as the punctuality and quality of flights.
For example, the airport’s altitude is 5,000 feet, and the present altimeter setting is 29.45. When you enter these figures into the pressure altitude equation, you obtain 5,470 feet.
To estimate the outside air temp (OAT) in degrees Celsius, first, check the outside air temperature sensor or retrieve data from the airport information system or various meteorological advisory.
Owing to the density altitude at higher field elevation on a hot day, the aircraft may not be able to break out of the ground effect.
Link the temperature and the airport elevation with a straight path to discover the influence of elevation on temperature. From conventional sea-level figures, note the rise in takeoff length and reduction in the rate of ascent. This graph shows the average benchmark parameters for private aircraft. Contact your AFM or POH for accurate figures. For aircraft with turbocharged engines, the chart may be conservative. Grass, gravel, dirt, or heavy snow may easily quadruple your takeoff distance.
If you do not have an E6B onboard flight computer, a density altitude chart can be used to calculate the density altitude. This is how:
Use the figures on the right side of the chart to compensate for runway altitude. To compensate for the discrepancy between standard and airport pressures, use the chart on the right.
To ensure a safe flight, extensive flight planning must be implemented prior to each trip. The safety of the airplane and its passengers is the top objective in flight planning. Planners must validate all NOTAMs for the arrivals and departures terminals, as well as the airspaces through which the airplane will fly, after creating the plan.